We offer a variety of links to resources that we have found useful as scholars and practitioners. We encourage and greatly appreciate suggestions for other resources to include. 

Academic Publications


Brown, V. F. (2017). The extinction market: Wildlife trafficking and how to counter it. Oxford University Press. Amazon Link.

Gore, M.L. (2017). Conservation criminology. Wiley-Blackwell. Amazon Link.

Lemieux, A.M. (2014). Situational prevention of poaching. Routledge.  Amazon Link.

Moreto, W. (2018). Wildlife crime: From theory to practice. Temple University Press. Amazon Link

Moreto, W., Pires, S. (2018). Wildlife crime: An environmental criminology and crime science perspective. Carolina Academic Press. Amazon Link.

Newing, H. (2010). Conducting research in conservation: Social science methods and practice. Routledge. Amazon Link

White, R. (2013). Crimes against nature: Environmental criminology and ecological justice. Routledge. Amazon Link.

Wyatt, T. (2013). Wildlife trafficking: A deconstruction of the crime, the victims, and the offenders. Palgrave Macmillan. Amazon Link.

Journal Articles

Gavin, M. C., Solomon, J. N., & Blank, S. G. (2010). Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology24(1), 89-100. Open-Access Link.

Gibbs, C., Gore, M.L., McGarrell, E.F., & Rivers III, L. (2009). Introducing conservation criminology: Towards interdisciplinary scholarship on environmental crimes and risks. The British Journal of Criminology50(1), 124-144. Open-Access Link.

Keane, A., Jones, J.P., Edwards‐Jones, G., & Milner‐Gulland, E.J. (2008). The sleeping policeman: Understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Animal Conservation11(2), 75-82. Open-Access Link.

Linkie, M., Martyr, D. J., Harihar, A., Risdianto, D., Nugraha, R. T., Leader‐Williams, N., & Wong, W. M. (2015). Safeguarding sumatran tigers: Evaluating effectiveness of law enforcement patrols and local informant networks. Journal of Applied Ecology52(4), 851-860. Open-Access Link.

Moreto, W.D. (2015). Introducing intelligence-led conservation: Bridging crime and conservation science. Crime Science, 4 (15). Open-Access Link.

Professional Publications

Multilateral Organizations

Flewwelling, P., Cullinan, C., Balton, D., Sautter, R.P., & Reynolds, J.E. (2002). Recent trends in monitoring, control and surveillance systems for capture fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 415. Open-Access Link.

ICCWC. (2016). Indicator framework for combating wildlife and forest crime: A self-assessment framework for national use. International Consortium on Combatting Wildlife Crime. Open-Access Link.

Nellemann, C., Henriksen, R., Raxter, P., Ash, N., & Mrema, E. (2014). The environmental crime crisis: Threats to sustainable development from illegal exploitation and trade in wildlife and forest resources. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Open-Access Link.

UNODC. (2012). Wildlife and forest crime analytic toolkit. Prepared for the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime. Open-Access Link.

UNODC. (2016). World wildlife crime report: Trafficking in protected species. Open-Access Link.

World Bank. (2018). Tools and Resources to Combat Illegal Wildlife Trade. Open-Access Link.

USAID. (2015). Measuring impact: Summary of indicators for combatting wildlife trafficking. Open-Access Link.

USAID. (2017). Measuring efforts to combat wildlife crime: A toolkit for improving action and accountability. Open-Access Link.

USAID. (2018). Combating wildlife trafficking case study compilation. Open-Access Link.

National Organizations



Nowell, K. (2012). Wildlife crime scorecard: Assessing compliance with and enforcement of CITES’ commitments for tigers, rhinos and elephants. WWF Report. Open-Access Link.

Rare and The Behavioural Insights Team. (2019). Behavior Change For Nature: A Behavioral Science Toolkit for Practitioners. Arlington, VA: Rare. Open-Access Link.

Non-Profit Organizations

Recommended Websites

Oxford Martin Programme on the Illegal Wildlife Trade. Officially launched in December 2016, the Oxford Martin Programme focuses on understanding and addressing the consumer demand aspect of the illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade. The programme is collaborative and interdisciplinary, utilizing theory and methods from public health, computer science, economics, psychology, ecology and sociology to address this pressing 21st century global challenge.

Academic Institutions

Multilateral Organizations

ECOLEX. ECOLEX is an information service on environmental law, operated jointly by FAO, IUCN and UNEP. Its purpose is to build capacity worldwide by providing the most comprehensive possible global source of information on environmental law. The database includes information on treaties, international soft-law and other non-binding policy and technical guidance documents, national legislation, judicial decisions, and law and policy literature. 

The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime. ICCWC is the collaborative effort of five inter-governmental organizations working to bring coordinated support to the national wildlife law enforcement agencies and to the sub-regional and regional networks that, on a daily basis, act in defense of natural resources. The ICCWC partners are the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Secretariat, INTERPOL, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the World Bank and the World Customs Organization.

The INTERPOL Program on Environmental Crime. INTERPOL carries out the following activities: leading global and regional operations to dismantle the criminal networks behind environmental crime using intelligence-driven investigations; coordinating and developing international law enforcement best practice manuals, guides and other resources; providing environmental law enforcement agencies with access to INTERPOL tools and services by enhancing their links with INTERPOL National Central Bureaus; and working with the Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Committee to shape strategy and direction.

ROUTES Partnership. The USAID Reducing Opportunities for Unlawful Transport of Endangered Species (ROUTES) Partnership brings together transport and logistics companies, government agencies, development groups, law enforcement, conservation organizations, and donors to disrupt wildlife trafficking by reducing the use of legal transportation supply chains. It provides a range of reports and implementation tools to reduce illegal transport.

The Secretariat for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The CITES Secretariat exists to implement a a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals that entered into force in 1975. CITES works by subjecting international trade in selected species to a licensing system for their import, export, re-export, and introduction by sea.

The United Nations Environment Programme. UN Environment promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. Its work includes assessing global, regional and national environmental conditions and trends; developing international and national environmental instruments; and strengthening institutions for the wise management of the environment.

EAGLE Network. The EAGLE Network (Eco Activists for Governance and Law Enforcement) is leading the fight against wildlife crime in sub-Saharan Africa. EAGLE developed a model of working with governments on investigations, arrest operations, legal follow up, and media activities to get the law applied. The model of EAGLE started in Cameroon and is now replicated in eight countries that form a network, and shifted countries from zero wildlife prosecutions to a rate of one major trafficker arrested, prosecuted and imprisoned per week.  

Freeland. Dedicated to a world free of wildlife trafficking and human slavery, Freeland is a leader in organizational innovations for conservation law enforcement with primary focus on South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. They offer terrific resources, include a wildlife protection toolkit and comprehensive training services and resources to for enforcement agencies to better combat poaching and wildlife trafficking.

SMART Partnership. A groundbreaking collaborative effort in wildlife conservation, this partnership unites some of the biggest names in nonprofit conservation to produce software, capacity building, and site-based protection standards for wildlife conservation and management.

TRAFFIC. As a global wildlife trade monitoring network, TRAFFIC is the leading non-governmental organization working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. TRAFFIC also offers the only journal devoted exclusively to wildlife trade issues. It provides news on the trade in wildlife resources, the latest in related legislation, investigations and seizures, and original reports. 

Non-Profit Organizations